Guide to the scientificliterature
on potential medical uses of Cannabis and the cannabinoids

Pate, D.W. 1995. Guide tothe scientific literature on potential medical uses of Cannabis andthe cannabinoids. Journalof the International Hemp Association  2(2):74-76

Marijuana and its componentcannabinoids have been demonstrated to affect many medicalconditions. However, orginalsources on this topic are often difficult to access, as they arediffusely distributed acrossa voluminous scientific literature. This bibliography gathers mostof the primary ( and someof the secondary) citations available, categorized according tomedical indication.


Widespread reports of self-medicationwith Cannabis have aroused medical and scientificinterest in the potentialapplication of cannabinoids for the treatment of variely of diseases.Some limited human trialsor case studies have revealed the safety and efficacy of this classof compounds for the symptomatictreatment of a broad number of ailments. The results oftests on other animals orin vitro experiments imply new paths of clinical investigation.The references below representa starting point for further inquiry. Included are papersregardless of their experimentaloutcome. Not included are citations related to the presentlyapproved uses of THC (i.e.cancer  chemotherapy nausea amelioration, AIDS patient appetitestimulation)

Anxiety and Psychosis

  • Guimares, F.S. et al., 1990.Anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze Psychopharmacology100: 558-559.
  • Guimares, F.S. et al., 1994.Anxiolytic effect of cannabidiol derivatives in the elevated plus-maze.Gen. Pharmac. 25: 161-164.
  • Zuardi, A.W. et al., 1982. Actionof cannabidiol on the anxiety and other effects produced by delta-9-THCin normal subjects. Psychopharmacology 76: 245-250.
  • Zuardi, A.W. et al., 1991. Effectsof cannabidol in animals models predictive of antipsychotic activity. Psychopharmacology 104: 260-264.
  • Zuardi, A.W. et al., 1993. Effectsof ipsapirone and cannabidiol on human experimental anxiety.  J. Psychophamacol.7: 82-88


  •  Gong, H. et al., 1984.Acute and subacute bronchial effects of oral cannabinoids. Clin.Pharm.Ther. 35: 26-32
  • Graham, J.D.P., 1986. The bronchodilatoraction of cannabinoids. In Cannabinoids as
  • Therapeutic Agents, R. Mechoulam,Ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 147-158
  • Hartley, J.P., et al., 1978.Bronchodilator effect of delta-9-THC.. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 5:523.
  • Karniol, I.G., et al., 1974.Cannabidiol interferes with the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocanna-binolin man. Eur. J. Pharmac. 28: 172
  • Tashkin, D., et al., 1973. Acutepulmonary psysiologic effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolin healty young men. New Engl. J.Med. 289: 336-341.
  • Tashkin, D., et al., 1976. Acuteeffects of smoked marijuana on airway dynamics in spontaneous and experimentallyinduced bronchial asthma. In The Pharmacology of marijuana, Braude andSzara, Eds., Raven Press, New York, pp. 785-799.
  • Vachon, L. et al., 1976 Airwaysrespons to aerosolized delta-9-THC preliminary repor In The TherapeuticPotential of Marijuana, Cohen, S. and Stillman, R.C., Eds., Plenum Press,New York, p. 111.
  • Vachon, L. et al., 1976. Airwaysresponse to micro-aerosolized delta-9-THC. Chest 70-444
  • Williams, S.J. et al., 1976.Bronchodilator effect of delta-9-THC admimistered by aerosol to asthmaticpatients. Thorax 31: 720


  • Ames, F.R. and Cridland, S.,1986. Anticonvulsant effect of cannabidiol. S. Afr. Med.69:14
  • Consroe, P.F. et al., 1975.Anticonvulsant Nature of marih. smoking. J.A.M.A. 234: 306-307
  • Cunha, J.M. et al., 1980. Chronicadministration of cannibidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients.Pharmacolog 21: 175-185
  • Davis, J.P. and Ramsey, H.H.,1949. Anti-epileptic action of narijuana-active substances.Fed. Proc. Am.Soc. Exp. Biol. 8: 284
  • Feeney, D. 1976. Marihuana useamong epileptics. J.A.M.A. 235: 1105.
  • Karler, R. and Turkanis, S.A.1981. The cannabinoids as potential antiepileptic. J. Clinical Pharmacology21: 437S-448S.
  • Karler, R. el al., 1973. Theanti-convulsant activity of cannabidiol and cannabinol. Life Sci.         13: 1527-1531
  • Karler, R. el al., 1984. Interactionbetween delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and kindling by electrical and chemicalstumilation in mice. Neuropharmacology 23: 1315-1320.
  • Karler, R. el al., 1989. Pentylenetetrazolekindling in mice. Neuropharmacology 28:775-780
  • Karler, R. el al., 1974. Anticonvulsantproperties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids. LifeSci. 15: 931-947.
  • Karler, R. el al., 1986. ProlongedCNS hyperexcitability in mice after a single exposure to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.Neuropharmacology 25: 441-446.
  • Karler, R. and Turkanis, S.,1976. The anti-epileptic potential of the cannabinoids. In The TherapeuticPotential of Marijuana, Cohen and Stillman, Eds., Plenum Press, New York, 383-396.
  • Turkanis, S. el al., 1974. Anti-convulsantproperties of cannabinol. Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol. 8: 231-246.


  • Colasanti, B.K. 1986. Review:Ocular hypotensive affect of marihuana cannabinoids: correlate of centralaction or separate phenomenon. J. Ocular Pharmacology 2(3): 295-304.
  • Colasanti, B.K. et al., 1984.Ocular hypotension, ocular toxicity, and neurotoxicity in response to marijuanaextract and cannabidiol. Gen. Pharmacol. 15: 479.
  • Colasanti, B.K. et al., 1984.Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after  administrationof delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabichromene. Exp. Eye Res. 38: 63.
  • Colasanti, B.K. et al., 1984.Intraocular pressure, ocular toxicity and neurotoxicity after administrationof cannabinol or cannabigerol. Exp. Eye Res.39: 231-259.
  • Crawford, W. & Merritt,J.C., 1979. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on arterial and intraocularhypertension. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Biopharmacol. 17: 191-196.
  • Green, K. and McDonald, T.F.,1987. Ocular toxicology of marijuana: an update. J. Toxi col.-cut and OcularToxicol. 6: 309-334.
  • Hepler, R.S. and Frank, I.M.1971. Marihuana smoking and intraocular pressure. J.A.M.A.      217: 1392.
  • Hepler, R.S. et at., 1976. Oculareffects of marijuana smoking. In The Pharmacology of Marijuana, Braude,M.C., and Szara, S., Eds., Raven Press, New York, p. 813.
  • Levitt, M. et at., 1981. Physiologicobservations in a controlled clinical trial of the antieme tic effectivenessof 5, 10, and 15 mg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cancer chemo therapy:ophthalmologic implications. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 21: 103S.
  • Merritt, J.C. et at., 1980.Effect of marijuana on intaocular and blood pressure in glaucoma. Ophtalmology87: 222.
  • Merritt, J.C. et at., 1981.Topical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hypertensive glaucomas.J. Parm.Pharmacol. 33: 40-41.
  • Merritt, J.C. et at., 1981.Topical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and aqueous dynamics in     glaucoma. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 21: 467S-471S.
  • Merrit, J.C. et at., 1980 Oraldelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in heterogenous glaucomas. Ann. Ppthalmol.12: 8
  • Merritt, J.C. et at., 1982.Topical delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as a potential glaucoma agent. Glaucoma4: 253-255.
  • Shapiro, D., 1974. The ocularmanifestation of the cannabinoids. Ophtalmologia 168: 366-369

Inflammation and swelling

  • Barret, M.L. et al., 1985. Isolationfrom Cannabis sativa L. of Cannflavon-a novel inhibitor or prostaglandinproduction. Biochem. Pharmacol. 34: 2019.
  • Burstein, S.H. et al., 1989.Antagonism to the actions of platelet activating factor bu a nonpsychoactivecannabinoid. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Therap. 251: 531-535.
  • Evans, A.T. et al., 1987. Actionsof Cannabis constituents on enzymes or arachidonate    metabolism:anti-inflammatory potential. Biochem. Pharmacol. 36: 2037-2040
  • Formukong, E.A. et al., 1987.Cannabinoids, the active constituents of Cannabis sativa L.    inhibit both human and rabbit platelet aggregation. Br. J. Pharmacol. 92(S):601.
  • Formukong, E.A. et al., 1989.The inhibitory effects of cannabinoids, the active constituents of Cannabissativa L. on human and rabbit platelet aggregation. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.41: 705-709.
  • Formukong, E.A. et al., 1988.Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of constituents of Cannabis sativaL. Inflammation 12: 361-371.
  • Sofia, R.D. et al., 1973. Antiedemicand analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol compared withthree other drugs. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 35: 7-16.
  • Sofia, R.D. et al., 1974. Comparativeanti-phlogistic activity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, hydrocortisoneand aspirin in various rat paw edema models. Life Sci. 15: 251-260.

Microbial Infections 

  • Blevins, R.D. and Damie, M.R.,1980. The effect of delta-9-THC on Herpes simplex virus replication. J.Gen. Virol. 49: 427.
  • Dahiya, M.S. and Jain, G.C.,1977. Antibacterial activity of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol. IndianDrugs Pharm. Ind. 12: 31-34.
  • Elsohly, H.N. et al., 1982.Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of certain cannabichromene and canabigerolrelated compounds. J. Pharm. Sci. 71: 1319-1323.
  • Ferenczy, L. et at., 1958. Anantibacterial preparatum from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Naturwissenschaften.45: 188.
  • Grlic, L., 1962. A comparativestudy on some chemical and biological characteristics of various samplesof Cannabis resin. Bull. Narc. 14: 37-46.
  • Kabelik, J., et al., 1960. Cannabisas a medicament. Bull. Narc. 12: 5.
  • Krejci, Z., 1958. Hanf (Cannabissativa)- Antibiotisches heilmittel. 2. Methodik und ergebnisse der bakteriologischenuntersuchungen und vorlaufige klinische erfahrungen. Pharmazie 13: 155-164.
  • Krejci, Z., 1970. Changes withmaturation in amounts of biologically interesting substances of Cannabis.In The Botany and Cnemistry of Cannabis, Proc. Conf., Joyce, C.R.D., Ed., J.& A. Churchill, London, pp. 49-55.
  • Krejci,Z., 1961. The problemof substances with antibacterial action: Cannabis effect. Casop. Lek. Cesk.43: 1341-1354.
  • Martinec, T. and Felklova, M.,1959. Einfluss veraschiedener dungung suf die antibakterielle aktivitatdes hanfes, Cannabis sativa L. Pharmazie 14: 276-279.
  • Martinec, T. and Felklova, M.,1959. Veranderungen der antibakteriellen aktivitat im verlaus der individuellenentwicklung des hanfes (Cannabis sativa L.). Pharmazie 14: 276-279.
  • Radosevic, A. et al., !962.Antibiotic activity of various types of Cannabis resin. UN SecretariatDoc. ST/SOA/SER.S/6. 9 jan. 25.
  • Radosevic, A. et al., 1962.Antibiotic activity of various types of Cannabis resin. Nature 195: 1007-1009.

  • Van Kingeren, B. and TenHam, M., 1976. Antibacterial activity of delta-9-THC and cannabidiol. Ant.van Leeuw. J. Microbiol Serol. 42: 9.

Movement Disorders 

  • Consroe, P. et al., 1986. Openlabel evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic disorders. Int.J. Neurosci. 30: 277-282.
  • Consroe, P. et al., 1991. Controlledclinical trial of cannabidiol in Huntington's disease. Pharmacol. Biochem.Behav. 40: 701-708.
  • Frankel, J.P. et al., 1990.Marijuana for Parkinsonian tremor. J. Neurol. Neurosurg.       Psychiatry 53: 436.
  • Hemming, M. and Yellowle, P.M.,1993. Effective treatment of Tourette's-Syndrome with marijuana.J. Psychopharmacol. 7: 389-391.
  • Moss, D.E. et al., 1989. Nicotineand cannabinoids as adjuncts to neuroleptics in the treatment of Tourettesyndrome and other motor disorders. Life Sci. 44: 1521-1525.
  • Ruchman, M.C., 1988. Role ofcannabidiol in the medical treatment of Meige's syndrome.        Ear Nose Throat J. 67: 919.
  • Sandyk, R. et al.,1986. Cannabidiolin dystonic movement disorders.Psychiatry Res.18: 291
  • Snider, S.R. and Consroe, P.,1984. Treatment of Meige syndrome with cannabidiol. Neurology 34(S1): 147.
  • Snider, S.R. and Consroe, P.,1985. Beneficial and adverse effects of cannabidiol in aParkinson patient with sinemet-induceddystonic dyskinesia. Neurology 35(S1): 201.

Multiple Sclerosis, Spasticityand other Neuromuscular Disorders 

  • Clifford, David B., 1983. Tetrahydrocannabinolfor tremor in MultipleSclerosis. Ann. Neurol.13: 669-671.
  • Dunn, M. and Davis, R.,1974.The perceived effects of marijuana on spinal cord injuredmales. Paraplegia 12: 175.
  • Elkin, R. et al., 1987. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol:a novel treatment of inflammatory demyelination.Fed. Proc. 46: 1378.
  • Greenberg, H.S. et al., 1990.Marijuana and its effect on postural stability in MultipleSclerosis patients with controls.Neurology 40(S1): 259.
  • Hanigan, W.C. et al., 1986.The effects of delt-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human spasticity.J. Am. Soc. Clin. Pharmacol.39: 198.
  • Lyman, W.D. et al., 1989. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol:A novel treatment for experimental autoimmune encephalitis. J. Meuroimmunol.23: 73-82.
  • Malec, J. et al., 1982. Cannabiseffect on spasticity  in spinal cord injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehab.63: 116.
  • Mauer, M. et al., 1990. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolshows anti-spastic and analgesic effectsin a single case double-blind trial. Eur. Arch. Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.240: 1-4.
  • Meinck, H.M. et al., 1989. Effectof cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in Multiple Sclerosis.J. Neurol. 236: 120-122.
  • Petro, D. 1980. Marihuana asa therapeutic agent for muscle spasm or spasticity. Psychosomatics.21: 81-85.
  • Petro, D. and Ellenberger, C.,Jr. 1981. Treatment of human spasticity with  delta-tetrahydrocannabinol.J. Clin. Pharmacol. 21: 413S-416S.
  • Truong, X.T. and Hanigan, W.C.,1986. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on electromyographicmeasurements in human spasticity. J. Am. Soc. Clin. Pharmacol.          Therp. 39: 232.

  • Ungerleider, J.T. et al.,1987. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the treatment of spasticityassociated with Multiple Sclerosis.Adv. Alcohol Subst. Abuse 7: 39-50.

Niemann-Pick Disease

  • Burstein, S. et al., 1984. Stimulation of sphingomyelin hydrolysisby cannabidol in fibro blasts from a Niemann-Pick patient. Biochem. Biophys.Res. Comm. 121: 168-173.

Opiate and Alcohol Addiction 

  •  Bhargava, H.N., 1976.Effect of some cannabinoids on naloxone-precipitated abstinence inmorphine-dependent rats. Psychopharmacology49: 267.
  • Carder, B., 1975. Blockage ofmorphine abstinence by delta-9-THC. Science 190: 590.
  • Hine, B. et al., 1975. Morphine-dependentrats: blockage of precipitated abstinence by THC Science187: 443.
  • Mikuriya, T., 1970. Cannabissubstitution: an adjunctive tool in the treatment of alcoholism Med. Times98: 187-191.
  • Rosenberg, C., 1976. The useof marijuana in the treatment of alcoholism. In The TherapeuticPotential of Marijuana, Cohen and Stillman, Eds., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 173-185.
  • Rosenberg, C.M. et al., 1978.Cannabis in the treatment of alcoholism. J. Stud. Alcohol           39: 155.
  • Scher, J., 1971. Marijuana asan agent in rehabilitating alcoholism. Am. J. Psychiatry 127:971-972


  • Harris, L., 1976. Analgesicand antitumor potential of the cannabinoids. In The Therapeuticpotential of marijuana, Cohenand Stillman, Eds., Plenum Press, New York, pp. 299-305.
  • Milstein, S.L. et al., 1975.Marijuana-produced changes in pain tolerance: experienced andnon-experienced subjects. Int.Pharmacopsychiatry 10: 177-182.
  • Noyes, S.J., Jr. and Baram,D.A., 1974. Cannabis analgesia. Compr. Psychiatry 15: 5.
  • Noyes, S.J., Jr. et al., 1975.The analgesic properties of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol andcodeine. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.18: 84-89.
  • Noyes, S.J., Jr. et al., Theanalgesic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. J. Clin.Pharmacol. 15: 139.
  • Volfe, Z. et al., 1985. Cannabinoidsblock release of serotonin from platelets induced by plasmafrom migraine patients. Int. J. Clin. Pharm. Res. 5: 243-246.
  • Zeidenberg, P., et al., 1973.Effect of oral administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolon memory, speech and perceptionof thermal stimulation: results with four normal human subjects.Preliminary report. Compr. Psychiatry 14: 549.


  • Bateman, D.N., 1987. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinoland gastric emptying. Br. J. Clin.    Pharmacol 15: 139.
  • Douthwaite, A.H., 1947. Choiceof drugs in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. Br. Med. J.43: 4514
  • Nalin, D.R. et al., 1978. Cannabis,hypochlrohydria and cholera. Lancet 2: 859.
  • Sofia, R.D. et al., 1978. Evaluationof antiulcer activity of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the Shay rat test. Pharmacology 17: 173.